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Hebrew - Various language rules

Silent and vocal sheva

Rules for sheva e are as follows:

  1. Vocal sheva can occur only under a consonant starting a syllable
  2. Silent sheva can occur only under a consonant ending a syllable
  3. Where there are two adjacent shevas, the first is silent and the second vocal
  4. A sheva below a double consonant is always vocal
  5. Compound shevas are almost always attached to guttural consonants

Daghesh lene and forte

Rules for interpreting daghesh markers are as follows:

  1. A dot in any letter other than BeGaD KePaT is always daghesh forte
  2. A dot in a BeGaD KePaT letter is daghesh lene when it is not immediately preceded by a vowel
  3. A dot in a BeGaD KePaT letter is daghesh forte when it is immediately preceded by a vowel
  4. Either kind can only come after a full vowel, not a half vowel
  5. A BeGaD KePaT letter requires a daghesh lene when it begins a word
  6. A BeGaD KePaT letter requires a daghesh lene when it begins a syllable and is preceded by a consonant with silent sheva
  7. A BeGaD KePaT letter must not have daghesh lene when it is preceded by a consonant having full or half vowel

Vav and Yodh as vowels or consonants

Vav functions as:
A vowel when it is immediately after a consonant and is pointed with either ô or û
A consonant when it is at the start of a word or syllable, and in such cases must be pointed with either a full or half vowel
Yodh function as:
A vowel when it is in median or final position in a syllable and is written without an accompanying vowel. It then combines with the (necessarily) full vowel of the preceding consonant to form a diphthong. This will be one of a, â, e, ê, î.
A consonant when it is at the start of a word or syllable, and must in this case be accompanied by a full or half vowel (usually full)
Language formalities