Click here to send us your inquires or call (852) 36130518
Main home page Amazon UK Store Amazon COM Store Site map Search Resources
Translations Languages Language issues Writing Chronology Patriarchs Exodus Judges Site access Recent changes Sundry

The Levitical towns - details


  1. Kohathite/Aaronite towns
  2. Kohathite/other towns
  3. Gershonite towns
  4. Merarite towns

This page reviews the various towns with a view to summarising what is known about them from other Old Testament passages, and (in some cases) from external sources.

Kohathite/Aaronite towns

From Judah and Simeon:
Hebron (common to both lists)
Hebron was an important centre in patriarchal times. Abraham had camped there in his early travels through Canaan (Gen. 13:18), and he returned there later. After Sarah's death he purchased a field from Ephron in order to bury her (Gen. 23:1, 19). Isaac and Jacob both had more settled occupancy there (Gen. 35:27, 37:14). The Israelite spies (Num. 13:22) visited here. It played a key role in Joshua's southern campaign (Josh. 10-12), and was subsequently part of Judah's territory (Josh. 15:54) and a city of refuge (Josh. 20:7). It is mentioned briefly as part of the account of Samson (Jdg. 16:3). It plays a key role in David's life - he sent gifts there from Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:31), and the first 7 1/2 years of his reign were based there (2 Sam. 2:1 and elsewhere). During his attempted insurrection, Absalom used Hebron as his base, presumably to appeal to a partisan sense of pride in the city. It was one of the cities fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:10).

Libnah (common to both lists)
Joshua 10:20 and 12:15 indicate that this town is in the western foothills between Makkedah and Lachish. Its king was defeated as part of the southern campaign, and after the conquest it was assigned to Judah's territory (Josh. 15:42). 2 Kings 8:22 (and 2 Chr. 21:10) recount that Libnah revolted against Jehoram of Judah at the same time as Edom did, but nothing more is heard of this revolt. 2 Kings 19:8 and Isaiah 37:8 both inform us that the Assyrian king Sennacherib moved from the siege of Lachish to Libnah. Josiah's wife Hamutal, the mother of Jehoahaz and Zedekiah of Judah was from here (2 Kings 23:31 and 24:18). See the pages on the Conquest for additional details.

Jattir (common to both lists)
Jattir, in the hill country, was assigned to Judah (Josh. 15:48). The town leaders were sent a gift by David of plunder from the defeat of Amalekites who had raided Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:27). It is probably modern Khirbet Attir, about 21 km from Hebron.

Eshtemoa (common to both lists)
Eshtemoa (or Eshtemoh), in the hill country, was assigned to Judah (Josh. 15:50). The town leaders were sent a gift by David of plunder from the defeat of Amalekites who had raided Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:27).

Holon (in Joshua) or Hilen (in Chronicles)
This hill country town was assigned to Judah in Josh. 15:51. Jeremiah refers to a Moabite town of the same name but a different location (Jer. 48:21).

Debir (common to both lists)
Debir was an Anakite stronghold according to Josh. 11:21, and was also known as Kiriath Sepher or Kiriath Sannah. The accounts of its capture in Josh. 15:15 and Jdg. 1:11 both follow the same sequence, beginning with the capture of Hebron, after which Othniel led the attack on Debir to secure marriage to Caleb's daughter Acsah. It was part of the territory of Judah (Josh. 15:49), and indeed was part of the northern border for this tribe (Josh. 15:7). There is no further mention of the town after this. See the pages on the Conquest for additional details.

Ain (in Joshua) or Ashan (in Chronicles)
Ain, in the Negev towards Edom, was assigned to Judah in Josh. 15:32, and then allotted to Simeon rather later (Josh. 19:7, see also 1 Chr. 4:32). A different town of the same name is mentioned in Num. 33:20 and 34:11 as a boundary marker for the land north of Galilee. Ashan in Chronicles may be an alternative name for the same place: alternatively Ashan, in the western foothills, was assigned to Judah in Josh. 15:42, and then allotted to Simeon rather later (Josh. 19:7, see also 1 Chr. 4:32). A town called Bor Ashan was sent a gift by David of plunder from the defeat of Amalekites who had raided Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:30).

Juttah (common to both lists)
This hill country town was assigned to Judah in Josh. 15:55. It was a walled town and is probably modern Yatta, about 8 km south of Hebron. 1 Chr. 6:59 refers to it as Atta.

Beth Shemesh (common to both lists)
This town was apportioned to Judah (Josh. 15:10) and was on the tribe's northern border. 1 Sam. 6:9 relates that the Philistines returned the Ark of the Covenant to this place after holding it for some months. It was the location of a battle between Amaziah of Judah and Jehoash of Israel, which Jehoash won (2 Kings 14:11, 2 Chr. 25:21). In the time of Ahaz, the Philistines raided the town (2 Chr. 28:18). Another, larger and better-known town of the same name was allotted to Naphtali, on the border with Issachar (Josh. 19:22, 38) but the Canaanites remained in possession of it (Jdg. 1:33). One of Solomon's district governors was located in a town of this name, most likely the northern one (1 Kings 4:9).

From Benjamin
Gibeon (common to both lists)
Gibeon and other nearby towns played a key role in Israelite history following their secession to Joshua when he entered the land (Josh. 9). It was in Benjamite territory (Jos. 18:25,26). It was the home town of Saul's ancestors (1 Chr. 8:29, 9:35). Even after David's capture of Jerusalem, Gibeon remained "the most important high place" at least until Solomon's reign, and both David and he caused sacrifices to be offered there (1 Chr. 16:39, 21:29, 2 Kings 3:4, 2 Chr. 1:3-5). Many important episodes of David's reign occurred here: Ishmaiah the Gibeonite joined David in Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4), and Joab's armour-bearer Naharai came from Beeroth (2 Sam. 23:37). Gibeon is used as a landmark in David's defeat of the Philistines (1 Chr. 14:16). It was also the scene of the fight between the followers of David and Ish-bosheth (2 Sam. 2:12). 2 Samuel 21 describes the settlement of a blood feud between Saul's house and the nonIsraelite Gibeonites. Amasa, Absalom's general during his insurrection, was also killed here (2 Sam. 20:8-13). As a religious centre it remained important until at least Jeremiah's time, as both the false prophet Hananiah (Jer. 28:1) and the true one Uriah (26:20) came from the region. Gibeon was substantially occupied in Early Bronze, Middle Bronze II, then Iron through to Persian and Roman times. No Late Bronze settlement has been identified, though there are burials in the area from this era. Shoshenk I lists it amongst his captured towns.

Geba (common to both lists)
Thought to be modern Jeba, about 11 km north of Jerusalem and a few km from Gibeah, though the two are often confused. It was assigned to Benjamin (Josh. 18:24 - cf 28 for Gibeah as a separate place). 1 Sam 13:3 relates Jonathan attacking a Philistine outpost here, and 1 Sam 14:1ff him and his armour-bearer then launching an attack on a Philistine outpost from here. 2 Sam 5:25 (in Hebrew but not Septuagint) has this as marking the start of one of David's victories. Asa of Judah fortified it (1 Kings 15:22, 2 Chr. 16:6), and in Josiah's time it had replaced "Dan" as indicating the northern extent of the realm (2 Kings 23:8).

Anathoth (common to both lists)
This town is not mentioned during the apportionment of the land. It seems to have attained prominence from David's time onwards. It was the home town of Abiezer, one of David's "Thirty" (2 Sam. 23:27, 1 Chr. 11:28, 12:3), and of Abiathar the priest (1 Kings 2:26). Isaiah foresaw the Assyrian advance through here (Isa. 10:30). Jeremiah was "one of the priests of Anathoth" (Jer. 1:1) and evidently other family members lived nearby (Jer. 29:27, 32:7). After the Exile it once again became important (Ezra 2:23, Neh. 7:27, 10:19, 11:32). It is thought to be modern Ras el-Harrubeh (the village of 'Anata), about 5 km north of Jerusalem.

Almon (in Joshua) or Alemeth (in Chronicles)
This town is not mentioned elsewhere, though the name Alemeth is associated with the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:36, 9:42).

Return to top

Kohathite/Other towns

From Ephraim:
Shechem (common to both lists)
This town is discussed in some detail in the pages dealing with Abimelech and Saul. Briefly, it was an important location in the patriarchal accounts (Gen. 33-37), and also during the Conquest and Settlement of the land. Joshua twice called assemblies here to carry out covenant-renewal ceremonies (Josh. 8, 24). The short-lived king Abimelech was born of a Shechemite woman, but later sacked and burned the city and its temple (Jdg. 8-9). Psalms 60 and 108 (both attributed to David) refer to the town. Jeroboam held the assembly here that rejected Rehoboam's claim of kingship (1 Kings 12), and used the town as his capital for a few years. The town declined in importance thereafter, but survived the fall of the northern kingdom (Jer. 41:5). Egyptian records from the 12th dynasty and Amarna period refer to it. Archaeologically the town was important from the early 2nd millennium to the 8th century BCE, before declining in importance. It is generally identified with modern Tell Balata.

Gezer (common to both lists)
Gezer plays an important role in the account of the southern campaign, but was apparently not captured despite its king and army having been defeated near Lachish. The town was assigned to Ephraim (Josh. 16:3, 10, 1 Chr. 7:28). However, Ephraim could not dislodge the Canaanites living there (Josh. 16:10, Jdg. 1:29). In David's time it was a landmark for the extent of Philistine territory and the site of various battles (2 Sam. 5:25, 1 Chr. 14:16, 20:4). Solomon built it up as part of a systematic programme including Megiddo and Hazor, but only after it had been taken by Pharaoh and given to him as a dowry (1 Kings 9:15-17). Thutmose III records overcoming strong defences, and the Amarna letters show it wavering in loyalty but ultimately remaining faithful to Egypt. Merenptah claims to have captured it, and shortly after the Philistines apparently controlled the city. Large quantities of stone are seen as evidence of Shoshenk's assault. Tiglath-pileser's reliefs depict the later stages of a siege.

Kibzaim (in Joshua) or Jokmeam (in Chronicles)
Jokmeam was a location of one of Solomon's district governors (1 Kings 4:12).

Beth Horon (common to both lists)
This was a landmark in Joshua's southern campaign (Josh. 10:10), and became a boundary marker between Ephraim (Josh. 16:3, 5) and Benjamin (Josh. 18:13, 14). It was raided by Philistines (1 Sam. 13:18), and later built up by Solomon (1 Kings 9:17, 2 Chr. 8:5). It was plundered by mercenary Israelite troops angry at having been dismissed by Amaziah of Judah before going on campaign (2 Chr. 25:13).

From Dan:
Eltekeh (in Joshua only)
Assigned to Dan in Josh. 19:44. Sennacherib relates the capture of a city called Altaku in his annals for 701/700 BCE. Possible modern alternatives are Khirbet el-Muqanna' (40 km west of Jerusalem) or Tell esh-Sharaf (16 km north-north-east of Ashdod).

Gibbethon (in Joshua only)
Assigned to Dan in Josh. 19:44. As a Philistine town it was later besieged by Nadab of Israel (1 Kings 15:27), where he was killed by Baasha. During another attempt to capture it (1 Kings 16:15), Omri, leader of the Israelite army, was declared king following reports of the death of Elah by Zimri. Sargon of Assyria included its conquest in inscriptions at Nineveh relating to his campaign of 712 BCE. It is probably modern Tell el-Melat, west of Gezer.

Aijalon (common to both lists but linked to Ephraim in Chronicles)
The Valley of Aijalon played an important role in the southern campaign (Josh. 10:12), and the town was allotted to Dan (Josh. 19:42). However, the Amorites retained control (Jdg. 1:35) until it was finally captured by the house of Joseph. 1 Sam. 14:31 records the Israelite pursuit of the Philistines from Michmash to Aijalon. Rehoboam built it up as one of his fortified towns (2 Chr. 11:10), and the Philistines raided it in the time of Ahaz (2 Chr. 28:18).
The judge Elon was buried in another town of this name in Zebulun (Jdg. 12:12).

Gath-Rimmon (common to both lists but linked to Ephraim in Chronicles)
This town was assigned to Dan in Josh. 19:45. Fairly close to Aijalon, it may reasonably be assumed to have been taken by Ephraim at the same time.

From half Manasseh west of the Jordan:
First listed town
  1. Taanach (in Joshua)
    The king of this town was defeated during the northern campaign (Josh. 12:21). Although in the border region between Issachar and Asher (Josh. 17:11, 1 Chr. 7:29) it was assigned to Manasseh. However, this tribe was unable to secure the town and the Canaanite inhabitants remained in control (Josh. 17:12, Jdg. 1:27). It is mentioned in connection with Barak's battle against Jabin (Jdg. 5:19). Both Taanach and Megiddo were involved in Solomon's adminstration (1 Kings 4:12). Thutmose III refers to this city (as does Shoshenk I), and Amarna letter 248 records a raid from Taanach on Megiddo. Identified as Tell Ta'annek, where excavations have found an Early Bronze city, Middle Bronze defences violently destroyed, and a prosperous Late Bronze city also destroyed. Numerous Akkadian and Canaanite inscriptions date from this layer. An early Iron city, including some notable religious finds, was apparently destroyed by Shoshenk, and thereafter the city declined.

  2. Aner (in Chronicles)
    This town is mentioned once only, in Chronicles 6.

Second listed town

  1. Gath-Rimmon (in Joshua)
    The Septuagint has Jebatha here instead of Gath-Rimmon, but this town (by either name) is not found elsewhere in the Old Testament.

  2. Bileam (in Chronicles)
    This is most likely the place elsewhere called Ibleam, eg Josh. 17:11. If so, see Jdg. 1:27 in which we learn that the Canaanites were not expelled, but only subdued after a time. Ahaziah of Judah was wounded here while fleeing to Megiddo from Jehu's insurrection against Joram of Israel (2 Kings 9:27). The town occurs in Egyptian lists as Ybr'm. It is probably Khirbet Bil'ameh, 16 km south-east of Megiddo.

Return to top

Gershonite towns

From half Manasseh in transJordan:
Golan in Bashan (common to both lists)
Dt. 4:43 records this town as being the city of refuge "for the Manassites". Josh. 20:8 repeats this, but there is no further mention of the town apart from the two Levitical lists. Its location is uncertain, but Sahm el-Jolan has been suggested, about 22 km east of the Sea of Galilee. Its position makes it likely to have been taken very early in the Aramaean expansion in the time of Asa of Judah.

Be Eshtarah (in Joshua) or Ashtaroth (in Chronicles)
Ashtaroth was an important Canaanite city from early times, and the name suggests it was a centre of worship of the goddess Ashtoreth/Astarte. It may be Ashteroth-Karnaim of Gen. 14:5. It was Og of Bashan's capital city (Dt. 1:4 and elsewhere). Josh. 13:31 records it as part of Manasseh's transJordan territory, but although Josh. 12:4 (and elsewhere) relates that Joshua defeated Og, there is no evidence that the city was taken, and Josh. 13:12 lists it as part of the land remaining to be secured. Be Eshtarah (a single word in Hebrew) is probably a contraction of bet ashtara. Uzzia, one of David's mighty men, came from here (1 Chr. 11:44). It is commonly identified with Tell Ashtarah, about 30 km east of the Sea of Galilee. Texts from Ebla are reported as referring to Ashtaroth. Egyptian Execration texts mention 's[t']rtm in this general area, and Thutmose III lists a town strt. In the Amarna letters it appears as ash-tar-te, and in Assyrian records (eg Tiglath-pileser III) as as-tar-tu.

From Issachar:
Kishion (in Joshua) or Kedesh (in Chronicles)
Kishion was allotted to Issachar (Josh. 19:20). It is possibly to be identified with Tell abu Qedes, south-south-west of Megiddo.

Daberah or Daberath (common to both lists)
This town was apparently on the border between Issachar and Zebulun (Josh. 19:12) but is consistently presented as allotted to Issachar. It is usually taken to be the ruins near the modern village of Deburiyeh, at the western foot of Mount Tabor.

Jarmuth (in Joshua) or Ramoth (in Chronicles)
This town in Issachar is also known as Remeth (based on Josh. 19:21, also 21:29 in the Septuagint where the Hebrew has Jarmuth). The Egyptian name for the area is "the hills of Yarmuta".
A town of the same name is found in Judah, usually taken to be modern Tel Yarmut, in a commanding position above the Wadi Suvar 5 km south of Beth Shemesh. Late Bronze walls and pottery have been found here suggesting an occupied area of 6-8 acres and corresponding population of 1500-2000.

En Gammin (in Joshua) or Anem (in Chronicles)
This town was allotted to Issachar in Josh. 19:21. It is tentatively identified with one of modern Jenin, Olam or Khirbet Beit Jann.
A town of the same name is listed as a town in the western foothills of Judah (Josh. 15:34).

From Asher:
Mishal (in Joshua) or Mashal (in Chronicles)
Mishal (was allotted to Issachar in Josh. 19:26.

Abdon (common to both lists)
This town (based on location in the lists) is spelled Ebron in Josh. 19:28 (in most manuscripts, though a few have Abdon). It is thought to be modern Khirbet Abdeh or Avron, 6 km inland from Achzib, commanding a route into the hills.

Helkath (in Joshua) or Hukok (in Chronicles)
Helkath was allotted to Asher (Josh. 19:25). Two suggestions for location are Tell el-Habaj, 10 km south-east of Haifa, or Tell el-Qasis, about 8 km further south-south-east. It is probably the place named as hrkt in Thutmose III's topographical lists.
Hukok is mentioned only in 1 Chr. 6, but a town called Hukkok was on the southern border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:34). These may be separate towns, or the Chronicles reference may be an error for Hukkok, or there may have been an actual change of intention. It is commonly thought to be Yakuk, 8 km west of Capernaum.

Rehob (common to both lists)
Josh. 19:28-30 indicates that Rehob was assigned to Asher and was one of the border markers for their territory. Jdg. 1:31 relates that Asher failed to drive out the Canaanites, who held on to this town.
A town of the same name is said (Num. 13:21) to be the furthest extent explored by the spies sent into the land by Moses. Jdg. 18:28 tells us that Laish, seized by the Danites after their abandonment of the coastal plain, was nearby. 2 Sam. 10:6 relates that Aramean foot-soldiers were hired by the Ammonites from Beth Rehob to fight David. These references relate to a town further to the north.

From Naphtali:
Kedesh in Galilee (common to both lists)
A former Canaanite royal city (Josh. 12:2) this became the City of Refuge in Naphtali (Josh. 19:37 - compare 20:7 and Jdg. 4:6). Tiglath-pileser III captured this and other towns in the north and in transJordan during the reign of Pekah (2 Kings 15:29), and after Old Testament times it was the scene of a major battle between the Maccabees and Demetrius. It is usually thought to be Tell Qades, north-west of Lake Huleh, at which occupation throughout the Bronze Age has been found.

Hammoth Dor (in Joshua) or Hammon (in Chronicles)
Hammon was allotted to Asher (Josh. 19:28) but was on the border of this territory. It is presumed that both names refer to the same place, but it is not mentioned elsewhere.

Kartan (in Joshua) or Kiriathaim (in Chronicles)
This town is not mentioned elsewhere, and although a number of suggestions have been made for its location, it remains unknown. Another town called Kiriathaim, in the territory of Reuben, is mentioned a number of times.

Return to top

Merarite towns

From Zebulun:
Jokneam (common to both lists)
A king of Jokneam in Carmel was defeated as part of Joshua's northern campaign (Josh. 12:22). The town was allotted to Zebulun in Josh. 19:11. It is named in a topographical list of Thutmose III. It is usually thought to be Tel Yoqneam, 12 km north-west of Megiddo.

Kartah (common to both lists)
This is probably the town called Kattath in Josh. 19:15, in the territory allotted to Zebulun.

Dimnah (in Joshua) or Rimmon/Rimmono (in Chronicles)
Rimmon was in Zebulun (Josh. 19:13). Presuming that it is the same place as Remmon and Dimnah (some manuscripts have Remmon in Josh. 21:35 instead of Dimnah), then Isa. 10:27 relates its capture during the the Assyrian advance. It has been suggested to be modern Rummaneh, 10 km north-north-east of Nazareth.

Nahalal (in Joshua) or Tabor (in Chronicles)
Nahalal was in Zebulun, but continued to be held by the Canaanites (Josh. 19:15, Jdg. 1:30). It is thought to be near to the modern village of the same name, about 9 km west of Nazareth.
Presuming that Josh. 19:22, Jdg. 8:18 and 1 Chr. 6:77 refer to the same place, Tabor is on the Zebulun/Issachar border, close to Mount Tabor.

From Reuben:
Bezer (common to both lists)
In the territory of Reuben, this town was appointed one of the Cities of Refuge (Dt. 4:43 and elsewhere). The Moabite stone records it as being taken and rebuilt by Mesha, since at the time it "lay in ruins".

Jahaz (in Joshua) or Jahzah (in Chronicles)
Jahaz (also spelled Jahaza or Jahazah) was the location of a decisive battle between the Amorite king Sihon, and the Israelites under Moses (Num. 21:23, Dt. 2:32. Jdg. 11:20). It was assigned to Reuben in Josh. 13:18. The area was lost to Israel, but reconquered to this town by Omri. The Moabite Stone indicates Israelites had been living here, but were driven out by Mesha (though few troops were needed, so occupation levels were presumably slight at this stage). In Isaiah's time it was still part of Moab (Isa. 15:4, Jer. 48:21, 34).

Kedemoth (common to both lists)
A town just inside the territory of Sihon, near to which Moses sent messages to him (Deut. 2:26). It was subsequently assigned to Reuben (Josh. 13:18). It has been tentatively identified with ez-Za'feran, about 16 km north of the River Arnon.

Mephaath (common to both lists)
Assigned to Reuben (Josh. 13:18), by the time of Jeremiah it was part of Moab (Jer. 48:21).

From Gad:
Ramoth in Gilead (common to both lists)
A walled city in the territory assigned to Gad, it was appointed one of the Cities of Refuge (Dt. 4:43 and elsewhere). It is thought that Ramath Mizpah (Josh. 13:26) and Mizpah of Gilead (Jdg. 11:29) are alternative names. This is possibly supported by Gen. 31:49, in which Galeed and Mizpah are alternate names of the place where Laban and Jacob made a covenant. If the same place, it was most likely Jephthah's home town (Jdg. 10-11). It was also the location of one of Solomon's district governors (1 Kings 4:13). The city changed hands several times during the wars between Israel and Aram. The original loss was probably when Asa of Judah sent tribute to Ben-hadad as an incentive to attack Israel. According to Josephus, Omri recaptured it from Ben-Hadad I, but shortly after it was lost again. Ben-Hadad promised to restore towns to Ahab of Israel after a defeat in battle (1 Kings 20), but apparently only to a limited extent as Asa's son Jehosaphat and Ahab attacked again as a joint venture (1 Kings 22), having lamented that Ramoth-Gilead was still in Aramaean hands. Just over a decade later another alliance between Joram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah tried again to take the city, this time from Hazael of Aram (2 Kings 8:28-29). Joram was wounded and went to Jezreel to recuperate, but 2 Kings 9:14 indicates that the city had been recaptured (Josephus suggests that Jehu in fact took the city after Joram's departure).

Mahanaim (common to both lists)
This was the place in transJordan where Jacob met Esau (Gen. 32:2). It was on the border between Gad and Manasseh, but assigned to the former (Josh. 13:26, 30). It featured in major ways during the early monarchy period. Ish-bosheth was made king here (2 Sam. 2:8), and Abner fled here when pursued by Joab (2 Sam. 2:29). During Absalom's rebellion David also fled here (2 Sam. 17:24, cf 1 Kings 2:8) and was provided for by Barzillai during his stay (2 Sam. 19:32). It was the site of one of Solomon's district governors (1 Kings 4:14).

Heshbon (common to both lists)
This was Sihon's capital city (Num. 32:3 and many other references) and because of good pasture lands was seen as desirable by the transJordan tribes. The Reubenites rebuilt it after Sihon's defeat (Num. 32:3, 37). Though allotted to Gad (Josh. 13:26) it was on the border with Reuben (Josh. 13:21). By the time of Isaiah it was part of Moab (Isa. 15:4, 16:8, Jer. 48:2, 34, 49:3). It is often identified with Tell Hesban, at which only Iron Age and later remains have been found: however Late Bronze sites are in the vicinity. Pools and water conduits have been found in a branch of the nearby Wadi Hesban (cf Song of Songs 7:4).

Jazer (common to both lists)
Moses sent spies here (Num. 21:32), and it was rebuilt by Gadites after Sihon's defeat (Num. 32:1, 3, 35). It was assigned to Gad in Josh. 13:25. During David's reign, the town supplied "capable men" (1 Chr. 26:31), and was also an early stage of his attempted census (2 Sam. 24:5). By the time of the prophets it was part of Moab (Isa. 16:9, Jer. 48:32), perhaps shortly before the fall of Samaria. It has been suggested to be Khirbet Gazzir, on the Wadi Sa'ib.

Return to top