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Deborah's Song - Judges 5 - analysis of words used

 TranslationTransliteration
2. a) bipherôah - from pâra‘, act as leader, infinitive construct
b) perâ‘ôwth - leader (plural)
c) in Israel

a) behithnadêb - nâdab, incite / impel - Hithpa‘êl infinitive
b) ‘âm - people
c) bârekû - from bârakh, bless, Pi‘êl imperative plural
d) Yahweh

bipherôah perâ‘ôwth beyisrâêl
 
 

behithnadêb ‘âm bârekû YHVH
 
 
 

3. a) shime‘û - from shâma‘, hear / listen - Qal imperative
b) melâkîym - king (plural)
c) ha’azîynû - from ’âzan, give ear - Hiphiyl imperative
d) rôzenîym - from râzan - being weighty / judicious / commanding

a) ’ânôkîy - I
b) to Yahweh
c) ’ânôkîy - I (emphasised)
d) ’âshîyrâh - from shîyr, sing - Piel imperfect 1S

a) ’âzammêr - from zâmar, make music (in praise to God) - Pi‘êl imperfect 1S
b) to Yahweh
c) Elohim of Israel

shime‘û melâkîym ha’azîynû rôzenîym
 
 
 

’ânôkîy laYHVH ’ânôkîy ’âshîyrâh
 
 
 

’âzammêr laYHVH ’elôhêy yisrâ’êl
 
 

4. a) Yahweh
b) betsê’thekâ - from yâtsa’, go or come out - Qal infinitive construct
c) from Seir

a) betsa‘dekâ - from tsâ‘ad, step / pace / march - Qal infinitive construct
b) sadêh - field / land / open country of (construct)
c) Edom

a) ’erets - land / earth
b) râ‘âshâh - from râ‘ash, quake / shake - Qal perfect 3FS
c) gam...gam - both...and or similar construction - shâmayim - skies / heavens
d) nâtâphû - from nâtaph, drop / drip - Qal perfect 3P

a) ‘âbîym - clouds
b) nâtephû - from nâtaph, drop / drip - Qal perfect 3P
c) mâyim - water

YHVH betsê’thekâ missê‘îyr
 
 

betsa‘dekâ missedêh ’edôm
 
 

’erets râ‘âshâh gam-shâmayim nâtâphû
 
 
 

gam-‘âbîym nâtephû mâyim
 
 

5. a) hârîym - mountain (plural)
b) nâzelû - from nâzal, flow / trickle - Qal perfect 3P
c) mippenêy - before / in front of
d) Yahweh

a) zeh - this/he (demonstrative, male)
b) çîynay - Sinai
c) mippenêy - before / in front of
d) Yahweh
e) ’elôhêy yisrâ’êl - Elohim (construct) of Israel

hârîym nâzelû mippenêy YHVH
 
 
 

zeh çîynay mippenêy YHVH ’elôhêy yisrâ’êl
 
 
 
 

6. a) bîymêy - in the days of (construct)
b) Shamgar
c) ben-‘anath - the son of (construct) Anath
d) bîymêy - in the days of (construct)
e) yâ‘êl - Ya'el

a) châdelû - from châdal, cease/desist/rest/leave/come to an end/left off - Qal perfect 3P
b) ’ârâchôth - plural of ’ôrâch, way / path / highway

a) wehôlekêy - and goers, from hâlak, go / come / walk, Qal participle
b) nethîybôth - plural of nethîyb, path / raised pathway
c) yêlkû - variation of hâlak, Qal perfect 3P
d) ’arâchôth - plural of ’ôrâch, way / path / highway
e) ‘aqalqallôth - crooked / twisted / roundabout

bîymêy shamegar ben-‘anath bîymêy yâ‘êl
 
 
 
 

châdelû ’ârâchôth
 

wehôlekêy nethîybôth yêlkû ’arâchôth ‘aqalqallôth
 
 
 
 

7. a) châdelû - from châdal, cease/desist/rest/leave/come to an end/left off - Qal perfect 3P
b) perâzôwn - villagers/village life/rustics/rural population
c) in Israel
d) châdêllû - from châdal, cease/desist/rest/leave/come to an end/left off - Qal perfect 3P

a) ‘ad - until
b) shaqqametîy - from qûm, rise up, Qal perfect 1s
c) Deborah

a) shaqqametîy - from qûm, rise up, Qal perfect 1s
b) ’êm - mother
c) in Israel

châdelû perâzôwn beyisrâ’êl
 
 
 

châdêllû ‘ad shaqqametîy debôwrâh
 
 

shaqqametîy ’êm beyisrâ’êl
 
 

8. a) yibchar - from bâchar, try / select / choose - Qal imperfect 3MS
b) ’elôhîym - gods
c) chadâshîym - new

a) ’âz - then / at that time / thereupon
b) lâchem - war / strife (see notes)
c) she‘ârîym - from sha‘ar, door / gate, dual form

a) mâgên - shield / buckler
b) ’im - if, but in a question expecting the answer no
c) yêrâ’eh - from râ’âh, see / be seen / occur / exist -
d) wârômah - from rômâch, spear / javelin (from the idea of hurling)

a) be’arbâ‘îym - in forty
b) ’eleph - thousand
c) in Israel

yibhchar ’elôhîym chadâshîym
 
 

’âz lâchem she‘ârîym
 
 

mâgên ’im-yêrâ’eh wârômach
 
 
 

be’arbâ‘îym ’eleph beyisrâ’êl
 
 

9. a) libîy - my heart
b) chôwqeqêy - from châqaq, inscribe/engrave/decree/enact - Qal participle plural construct
c) Israel

a) hammithnadebîym - nâdab, incite / impel - Hithpa‘êl infinitive
b) bâ‘âm - in the people
c) bârekû - from bârakh, bless, Pi‘êl imperative plural
d) Yahweh

libîy lechôwqeqêy yisrâ’êl
 
 

hammithnadebîym bâ‘âm bârekû YHVH
 
 
 

10. a) rôkebêy - riders of (plural construct)
b) ’athônôwth - female ass / donkey (plural)
c) tsechôrôwth - tawny / reddish-gray

a) yôshebêy - from yâshab, sit / dwell - Qal participle plural construct
b) ‘al - upon / above / about or similar
c) midîyn - cloth garment / measure / carpet (plural)

a) wehôlekhêy - from hâlak, go / walk / come - Qal participle plural construct
b) ‘al-derekh - on the road / path / way
c) sîychû - from sîyach, muse / ponder / talk, Qal imperative plural

rôkebêy ’athônôwth tsechôrôwth
 
 

yôshebêy ‘al-midîyn
 
 

wehôlekhêy ‘al-derekh sîychû
 
 

11. a) miqqôwl - voice
b) mechatsetsîym - from chêts, arrow, or châtsats, divide (see notes)
c) bêyn - among / around / between / in the midst of
d) mashe’abîym - a drawing-place for water (plural)

a) shâm - there
b) yethannû - from tânâh, recount / rehearse - Pi‘êl imperfect 3MP
c) tsideqôwth - plural of righteousness
d) Yahweh

a) tsideqôwth - plural of righteousness
b) pirezôwnôw - his villages
c) in Israel

a) ’âz - then / at that time / thereupon
b) yâredû - from yârad, go down, Qal perfect 3MP
c) lashshe‘ârîym - from sha‘ar, door / gate, dual form, prefix to the

miqqôwl mechatsetsîym bêyn mashe’abîym
 
 
 

shâm yethannû tsideqôwth YHVH
 
 
 

tsideqôth pirezôwnôw beyisrâ’êl
 
 

’âz yâredû lashshe‘ârîym ‘am-YHVH
 
 

12. a) ‘ûrîy - from ‘ûr, arouse oneself/awake - Qal imperative FS
b) Deborah

a) ‘ûrîy - from ‘ûr, arouse oneself/awake - Qal imperative FS
b) daberîy - speak (wide range of meanings) - Qal imperative FS
c) shîyr - a song

a) qûm - from qûm, arise / stand up - Qal imperative MS
b) Baraq
c) ûshabêh - from shâbâh, take captive - Qal imperative MS
d) shebyekhâ - your captives
e) son of Abinoam

‘ûrîy ‘ûrîy debôwrâh
 

‘ûrîy ‘ûrîy daberîy-shîyr
 
 

qûm bârâq ûshabêh shebyekhâ ben-’abîynô‘am
 
 
 
 

13. a) ’âz - At that time
b) yerad - from yârad, go down / come down - Qal perfect 3MS
c) sârîyd - a remnant / survivor
d) ’addîyr - powerful / great / lordly / mighty - plural
e) ‘âm - people

a) Yahweh
b) yerad - from yârad, go down / come down - Qal perfect 3MS
c) lîy - to me
d) baggibôwrîym - in the strong / mighty / valiant (men)

’âz yerad sârîyd le’addîyrîym ‘âm
 
 
 
 

YHVH yerad-lîy baggibôwrîym
 
 
 

14. a) minnîy - A part of/some
b) Ephrayim
c) shârshâm - from shôresh, root
d) in Amaleq

a) ’achareykhâ - after you (singular)
b) Binyamin
c) in your (singular) people

a) minnîy - A part of/some
b) Makir
c) yaredû - from yârad, go down/come down - Qal perfect 3MP
d) mechôqeqîym - - from châqaq, inscribe/engrave/decree/enact - Pi‘êl participle plural construct

a) and from Zebulun
b) môshekîym - from mâshakh, draw/lead/extend/wield - Qal plural participle
c) beshêbet - with a tribal staff/rod/clan
d) çôphêr - enumerator/muster-officer/scribe

minnîy ’ephrayim shârshâm ba‘amâlêq
 
 
 

’achareykhâ binyâmîyn ba‘amâmeykhâ
 
 

minnîy makhîyr yaredû mechôqeqîym
 
 
 
 

ûmizzebûlun môshekîym beshêbet çôphêr
 
 
 

15. a) sar - chieftain/ruler/captain/prince of (plural construct)
b) in Yissakhar
c) ‘im - with
d) Deborah

a) and Yissakhar
b) kên - even so
c) Baraq

a) bâ‘êmeq - in the deep place/valley/vale, from ‘âmôq, be deep
b) shullach - from shâlach, send, Pu‘al perfect 3ms, be sent/be impelled/hurried/be driven
c) beragelâyv - at his feet

a) biphlaggôwth - in section/division of (plural construct)
b) Re’uben

a) gedôlîym - great (plural)
b) chiqeqêy - decree/thought of (plural construct)
c) lêb - heart

wesˆray beyissâkhâr ‘im debôrâh
 
 
 

weyissâkhâr kên bârâq
 
 

bâ‘êmeq shullach beragelâyw

biphlaggôwth re’ûbên
 

gedôlîym chiqeqêy-lêb
 
 

16. a) lâmmâh - why/to what purpose?
b) yâshabethâ - from yâshab, sit/dwell - Qal perfect 2MS
c) bêyn - among/around/between/in the midst of
d) hammishpethayim - the fireplace/ash-heap ie encampment area (dual)

a) lishemôah - from shâma‘, hear/listen to
b) sheriqôwth - hissing/whistling/piping of (plural construct)
c) ‘adârîym - flock (sheep or goats) (plural)

a) liphlaggôwth - for section/division of (plural construct)
b) Re’uben
c) gedôwlîym - great (plural)
d) chiqerêy - searching/questioning of (plural construct)
e) lêb - heart

lâmmâh yâshabethâ bêyn hammishpethayim
 
 
 

lishemôah sheriqôwth ‘adârîym
 
 

liphlaggôwth re’ûbên gedôwlîym chiqerêy-lêb
 
 
 
 

17. a) Gilead
b) be‘êber - across/on the other side/in the east
c) the Jordan
d) shâkhên - from shâkhan, reside/stay/settle/remain - Qal perfect 3ms

a) and Dan
b) lâmmâh - why/to what purpose?
c) yagûr - from gûr, sojourn/gather/abide, Qal imperfect 3ms
d) ’ânîyyôwth - being at ease (see Notes discussing this choice instead of "ships")

a) Asher
b) yâshab - sat/dwelt/rested, Qal perfect 3MS
c) lechôwph - to coasts/havens/shores/enclosures
d) yammîym - days

a) ‘al - upon/at/about
b) miphrâtsâyw - his landing places/inlets (or perhaps broken walls from break through rather than moor)
c) yishkôwn - from shâkhan, reside/stay/settle/remain - Qal imperfect 3ms

gile‘âd be‘êber hayyarden shâkhên
 
 
 

wedân lâmmâh yagûr ’ânîyyôwth
 
 
 

’âshêr yâshab lechôwph yammîym
 
 
 

we‘al miphrâtsâyw yishkôwn
 
 

18. a) Zebulun
b) ‘am - people
c) chêrêph - from châraph, reproach / taunt - Pi‘êl perfect
d) napshôw - his soul / life
e) lâmûth - to death

a) and Naphtali
b) ‘al - and upon / at / about
c) merôwmêy - the heights of (participle construct)
d) sâdeh - field / land / pasture-land

zebulûn ‘am chêrêph napshôw lâmûth
 
 
 
 

wenaphtâlîy ‘al merôwmêy sâdeh
 
 
 

19. a) bâ’û - from bôw’, come / go - Qal perfect 3MP
b) melâkhîym - kings
c) nilchâmû - from lâcham, wage war / do battle - Niph‘al 3MP

a) ’âz - then
b) nilchamû - from lâcham, wage war / do battle - Niph‘al 3MP
c) malekêy - kings of (plural construct)
d) Canaan

a) at Taanach
b) ‘al - upon / at / about
c) mêy - waters of (construct)
d) Megiddo

a) betsa‘ - plunder / gain / profit
b) keçeph - silver
c) lô’ - negation
d) lâqâchû - from lâqach, take - Qal perfect 3MP

bâ’û melâkhîym nilchâmû
 
 

’âz nilchamû malekêy kena‘an
 
 
 

beta‘anakh ‘al-mêy megiddôw
 
 
 

betsa‘ keçeph lô’ lâqâchû
 
 
 

20. a) min-shâmayim - from the skies / heavens
b) nilchâmû - from lâcham, wage war / do battle - Niph‘al 3MP

a) hakkôwkhâbîym - the stars
b) mimmeçillôwthâm - from their courses / throughfares
c) nilechamû - from lâcham, wage war / do battle - Niph‘al 3MP
d) ‘im-çîyçerâ’ - with Sisera

min-shâmayim nilchâmû
 

hakkôwkhâbîym mimmeçillôwthâm nilechamû ‘im-çîyçerâ’
 
 
 

21. a) nachal - river
b) Qishon
c) gerâphâm - from gâraph, bear away / sweep away - Qal perfect 3MS

a) nachal - river
b) qedûmîym - ancient (perfect participle from qâdam, precede)
c) nachal - river
d) Qishon

a) tidrekhîy - from dârakh, step / march - Qal imperfect 2FS
b) napheshîy - my soul / life
c) ‘ôz - strength / might

nachal qîyshôwn gerâphâm
 
 

nachal qedûmîym nachal qîyshôwn
 
 
 

tidrekhîy napheshîy ‘ôz
 
 

22. a) ’âz - then / at that time
b) hâlemû - from hâlam, hammer / strike down - Qal perfect 3MP
c) ‘iqqebêy - from ‘âqêb, heel / footprint / mark (plural construct)
d) çûç - horse

a) middaharôwth - from rushing / dashing of (plural construct, from dâhar, rush or dash especially of horse)
b) daharôwth - rushing / dashing of (plural construct)
c) ’abîyrâyw from ’abîyr, mighty / valiant

’âz hâlemû ‘iqqebêy çûç
 
 
 

middaharôwth daharôwth ’abîyrâyw
 
 

23. a) ’ôwrû - from ’ârar, curse - Qal imperative
b) Meroz
c) ’âmar - he said , Qal perfect 3MS
d) male’akh - messenger / angel
e) Yahweh

a) ’ôrû - from ’ârar, curse - Qal imperative
b) ’arôwr - from ’ârar, curse - Qal infinitive absolute
c) yôshbeythâ - from yâshab, sit / live / dwell - participle

a) kîy - for / because
b) lô’ - negation
c) bâ’û - from bôw’, come / go - Qal perfect 3MP
d) le‘ezerath - to help / to the help of
e) Yahweh

a) le‘ezerath - to help / to the help of
b) Yahweh
c) baggibôwrîym - in the strong / mighty / valiant (men)

’ôwrû mêrôz ’âmar male’akh YHVH
 
 
 
 

’ôrû ’arôwr yôshbeythâ
 
 

kîy lô’-bâ’û le‘ezerath YHVH
 
 
 
 

le‘ezerath YHVH baggibôwrîym
 
 

24. a) tebôrakh - from bârakh, bless - Pu‘al imperfect 3FS
b) minnâshîym - among women
c) Ya'el

a) ’êsheth - wife / woman of (construct)
b) Cheber
c) the Qeyniy (Kenite)

a) minnâshîym - among women
b) bâ’ôhel - in the tent
c) tebôrâkh - from bârakh, bless - Pu‘al imperfect 3FS

tebôrakh minnâshîym yâ‘êl
 
 

’êsheth cheber haqqêynîy
 
 

minnâshîym bâ’ôhel tebôrâkh
 
 

25. a) mayim - water
b) shâ’al - he asked - Qal perfect 3MS
c) châlâb - milk
d) nâthânâh - from nâthân, he gave - Qal perfect 3MF

a) beçêphel - in a bowl / dish
b) ’addîyrîym - from ’addîyr, glorious / noble / great
c) hiqrîybâh - from qârab, approach / draw near - Hiphîyl 3FS
d) cheme’âh - curdled milk / cheese

mayim shâ’al châlâb nâthânâh
 
 
 

beçêphel ’addîyrîym hiqrîybâh cheme’âh
 
 
 

26. a) yâdâh - her hand
b) layyâthêd - to the stake / peg / pin
c) tishlachnâh - from shâlach, reach / stretch out - Qal imperfect 3FS

a) wîymîynâh - and her right hand
b) lehalemûth - to a hammer / mallet
c) ‘amêlîym - from ‘âmêl, toiling / labourer

a) wehalemâh - from hâlam, hammer - Qal perfect 3FS
b) Sisera
c) mâchaqâh - mâchaq, crush - Qal perfect 3FS
d) rô’shôw - his head

a) ûmâchatsâh - from mâchats, crush / destroy / smite - Qal perfect 3FS
b) wechâlephâh - from châlaph, pierce / pass through / break - Qal perfect 3FS
c) raqqâthôw - his temple / the side of his head

yâdâh layyâthêd tishlachnâh
 
 

wîymîynâh lehalemûth ‘amêlîym
 
 

wehalemâh çîyçerâ’ mâchaqâh rô’shôw
 
 
 

ûmâchatsâh wechâlephâh raqqâthôw
 
 

27. a) bêyn - between / among / in the midst of
b) ragleyhâ - her feet
c) kâra‘ - he knelt - Qal perfect 3MS
d) nâphal - he fell / lay down - Qal perfect 3MS
e) shâkhab - he - Qal perfect 3MS

a) bêyn - between / among / in the midst of
b) ragleyhâ - her feet
c) kâra‘ - he knelt - Qal perfect 3MS
d) nâphal - he fell / lay down - Qal perfect 3MS

a) ba’asher - in which / where
b) kâra‘ - he knelt - Qal perfect 3MS
c) shâm - there
d) nâphal - he fell / lay down - Qal perfect 3MS
e) shâdûd - from shâdad, destroy / ruin / kill - passive participle

bêyn ragleyhâ kâra‘ nâphal shâkhab
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
bêyn ragleyhâ kâra‘ nâphal

ba’asher kâra‘ shâm nâphal shâdûd
 
 
 
 

28. a) be‘ad - in at
b) hachallôwn - the window
c) nishqephâh - from shâqaph, lean out / look out - Qal imperfect 3FS
d) watyabbêb - from yâbab, call out / cry out shrilly - Pi‘êl imperfect 3FS

a) ’êm - mother of (construct)
b) Sisera
c) be‘ad - in at
d) hâ’eshnâb - the lattice

a) maddûa‘ - why? / to what purpose? / what is known?
b) bôshêsh - shame / delay
c) rikhebôw - his chariot
d) lâbô’ - to him

a) maddûa‘ - why? / to what purpose? / what is known?
b) ’echerû - from ’âchar, delay / tarry / loiter - Pi‘êl perfect 3MP
c) pa‘amêy - beating / stroke / noise of (construct)
d) markebôwthâyw - his chariots

be‘ad hachallôwn nishqephâh watyabbêb
 
 
 

’êm çîyçerâ’ be‘ad hâ’eshnâb
 
 
 

maddûa‘ bôshêsh rikhebôw lâbô’
 
 
 

maddûa‘ ’echerû pa‘amêy markebôwthâyw
 
 
 

29. a) chakhemôwth - wise (FP)
b) sârôwtheyhâ - from sârâh, mistress / female noble / lady, plural + her
c) ta‘aneynnâh - from ‘ânâh, answer / respond - Qal imperfect 3FS

a) ’aph-hîy’ - indeed she
b) tâshîyb - from shûb, turn back / return / respond - Qal imperfect 3FS
c) ’amâreyhâ - from ’âmar, say / answer - Qal imperfect 3FS
d) lâh - to her

chakhemôwth sârôwtheyhâ ta‘aneynnâh
 
 

’aph-hîy’ tâshîyb ’amâreyhâ lâh
 
 
 

30. a) halô’ - are they not?
b) yimtse’û - from mâtsâ’, attain / find - Qal imperfect 3MP
c) yechalleqû - from châlaq, apportion / separate / divide by lot - Qal imperfect 3MP
d) shâlâl - prey / spoil / plunder

a) racham - maiden (also womb / compassion)
b) rachamâthayim - dual form of the above
c) lerô’sh - to a head
d) geber - man as strong combatant

a) shelal - prey / spoil / plunder
b) tsebâ‘îym - dual form, dyed stuff
c) to Sisera

a) shelal - prey / spoil / plunder
b) tsebâ‘îym - dual form, dyed stuff
c) riqmâh - variegated cloth (woven or embroidered)

a) tseba‘ - dyed stuff
b) riqmathayim - dual form, variegated cloth
c) letsawû’rêy - to / for the back of the neck
d) shâlâl - prey / spoil / plunder

halô’ yimtse’û yechalleqû shâlâl
 
 
 

racham rachamâthayim lerô’sh geber
 
 
 

shelal tsebâ‘îym leçîyçerâ’
 
 

shelal tsebâ‘îym riqmâh
 
 

tseb‘ riqmathayim letsawû’rêy shâlâl
 
 
 

31. a) kên - even so / so may
b) yô’bedû - from ’âbad, perish / die / be ruined - Qal imperfect 3MP
c) kol - all
d) ’ôwyebeykhâ - your enemies
e) Yahweh

a) ’ôhabâyw - from ’ôwhab, love
b) ketsê’th - from yâtsâ’, bring out / appear / go
c) hashshemesh - the sun
d) bigeburâthôw - from geburâh - in his strength / might / power

kên yô’bedû kol-’ôwyebeykhâ YHVH
 
 
 
 

we’ôhabâyw ketsê’th hashshemesh bigeburâthôw
 
 
 

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