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Psalm 39 - analysis of words used

1. For the choir director, to yedyothun
A worship song of David.
lamnatstsêach lîydyôthun
mizemôwr ledawid
2. a) ’âmartîy - ’âmar, speak/say, Qal perfect 1s
b) ’eshmerâh - shâmar, keep/guard/watch, Qal imperfect 1s
c) derâkhay - my ways/paths
a) mêchatôw’ - from + châta‘, miss/go wrong/sin, Qal infinitive
b) bileshôwnîy - in my tongue (from lâshan, lick)
a) ’eshmerâh - shâmar, keep/guard/watch, Qal imperfect 1s
b) lepîy - to/for my mouth
c) macheçôwm - a muzzle (from châçan, stop up/muzzle)
a) be‘ôd - whle/yet/during
b) râshâ‘ - the wicked/guilty
c) lenegedîy - to in front of me/in sight of me/opposite me, from the idea of being conspicuous
’âmartîy ’eshmerâh derâkhay

mêchatôw’ bileshôwnîy

’eshmerâh lepîy macheçôwm

be‘ôd râshâ‘ lenegedîy

3. a) ne’elametîy - ’âlam, bind, Niph‘al perfect 1s, be bound/be dumb
b) dûmîyyâh - silence/waiting/resignation, from dâwam
c) hecheshêythîy - châshâh, be silent/inactive/still, Hiph‘îyl perfect 1s, exhibit silence/restraint
d) mittôwb - from good/goodness
a) ûkhe’êbîy - and my pain (physical or mental, linked with feelings of sorrow, fro, kâ’ab))
b) ne‘kâr - ‘âkhar, stir up/disturb/trouble, Niph‘al perfect 3ms
ne’elametîy dûmîyyâh hecheshêythîy mittôwb

ûkhe’êbîy ne‘kâr

4. a) cham - become/be warm or hot, Qal perfect 3ms
b) libbîy - my heart
c) beqirebîy - in my midst/inner parts
d) bahagîygîy - in my murmuring/whispering/musing
e) thib‘ar - bâ‘ar, burn/consume, Qal imperfect 3ms, older meaning suggests seeking out/gleaning/collecting
f) ’êsh - fire
a) dibbaretîy - I spoke/uttered
b) bileshôwnîy - in my tongue
cham-libbîy beqirebîy bahagîygîy thib‘ar-’êsh

dibbaretîy bileshôwnîy

5. a) hôwdîy‘ênîy - yâda‘, know, Hiph‘îyl imperative, make me know
b) Yahweh
c) qitstsîy - my end/boundary, usually of time
a) ûmiddath - and measure/stature/size of, usually of physical extent (from mâdâh, measure)
b) yâmay - my days
c) mah-hîy’ - what is she
a) ’êde‘âh - yâda‘, know, Qal imperfect/jussive
b) meh-châdêl - what lacking/ceasing/transient/failing
c) ’ânîy - I
hôwdîy‘ênîy YHVH qitstsîy

ûmiddath yâmay mah-hîy’

’êde‘âh meh-châdêl ’ânîy

6. a) hinneh - see/behold
b) tephâchôwth - span/handbreadth (from tâphach, extend/spread)
c) nâthattâh - you gave, Qal perfect 2ms
d) yâmay - my days
a) wecheledîy - my duration/world
b) khe’ayin - like it is not
c) negedekhâ - to in front of you/in sight of you/opposite you, from the idea of being conspicuous
a) ’akh - surely/yet/but/only/wholly/in truth
b) kol-hebel - all vapour/breath/vanity/nothingness (from hâbal, act emptily/become vain)
c) kol-’âdâm - all Adam/man/mankind
d) nitstsâb - from nâtsab, Niph‘ only, participle, that which takes a stand, related to sign/waymark/monument/statue/presiding over/appointed over
e) çelâh - “lift up”, suggesting direction to reader to pause for reflection, perhaps also a musical direction
hinneh tephâchôwth nâthattâh yâmay

wecheledîy khe’ayin negedekhâ

’akh kol-hebel kol-’âdâm nitstsâb çelâh

7. a) ’akh-betselem - surely (etc) an image/semblance/likeness (from tsâlam)
b) yithhallekh - hâlakh, walk/go, Hithpa‘lêl imperfect 3ms, walk to and fro/go about
c) ’îysh - a man
a) ’akh-hebel - surely (etc) vapour/breath/vanity/nothingness
b) yehemâyûn - hâmâh, murmur/growl, usually in disappointment, also stir in commotion, Qal imperfect
a) yitsebôr - tsâbar, heap up/gather together
b) welô’-yêda‘ - and not knows, yâda‘ Qal perfect 3ms
c) mîy-’ôçephâm - who gathers, ’âçaph, gather/remove, Qal participle (often in phrase “gather to fathers”
’akh-betselem yithhallekh-’îysh

’akh-hebel yehemâyûn

yitsebôr welô’-yêda‘ mîy-’ôçephâm

8. a) we‘attâh - and now
b) mah-qqiwwîythîy - what wait/look eagerly for, qâwâh, wait for (originally with idea of stretching/twisting so as to endure tension), Pi‘êl perfect 1s, linger for/be in wait for
c) ’adônây
a) tôwchaletîy - my hope, yâchal, await in expectation, so tôwcheleth
b) lekhâ - to/for you
c) hîy’ - it/she
we‘attâh mah-qqiwwîythîy ’adônây

tôwchaletîy lekhâ hîy’

9. a) mikkol-peshâ‘ay - from all my transgressions/rebellions/revolts
b) hatstsîylênîy - hâtsal, tear away, Hiph‘îyl tear apart/tear away/snatch away/rescue/recover/deliver from
a) cherepath - taunt/reproach/shame/condition of disgrace (from chârap, reproach)
b) nâbâl - a fool / Nabal
c) ’al-tesîymênîy - not put/place/set/charge against/render to me, sîym, Pi‘êl
mikkol-peshâ‘ay hatstsîylênîy

cherepath nâbâl ’al-tesîymênîy

10. a) ne’elametîy - ’âlam, bind, Niph‘al perfect 1s, be bound/be dumb
b) lô’ - never
c) ’ephetach-pîy - opening my mouth, pâtach, Qal imperfect 1s
a) kîy - for/because
b) ’attâh - you
c) ‘âsîythâ - ‘âsâh, do/make, Qal perfect 2ms
ne’elametîy lô’ ’ephetach-pîy

kîy ’attâh ‘âsîythâ

11. a) hâçêr - from cûr, turn aside, Hiph‘îyl imperative, take off/remove/depose/reject
b) mê‘âlay - from upon me
c) nig‘ekhâ - your stroke/chastisement, often of disease, from nâga‘ touch/lay hand on/reach/strike
a) mittigerath - from contention/strife/hostility, from gârâh, engage in strife
b) yâdekhâ - your hand
c) ’anîy - I
d) kâlîythîy - kâlâh, Qal perfect 1s, I am completed/spent/finished/at an end/accomplished
hâçêr mê‘âlay nig‘ekhâ

mittigerath yâdekhâ ’anîy kâlîythîy

12. a) bethôwkhâchôwth - in chastisements/corrections/reproofs/rebukes/refutations, from yâkach
b) ‘al-‘âwon - upon/against iniquity/guilt, from ‘7acirc;wâh, suggesting erring from the way
c) yiççaretâ - yâçar, discipline/admonish/chasten, Pi‘êl
d) ’îysh - a man
a) wattemeç - from mâçâh, melt/dissolve/be liquified, Hiph‘îyl imperfect 2ms
b) kâ‘âsh - like a moth
c) chamûdôw - from châmad, desire/take pleasure, passive participle + suffix
a) ’akh - surely
b) hebel - vapour/breath/vanity/nothingness
c) kol-’âdâm - all of Adam
d) çelâh - “lift up”, suggesting direction to reader to pause for reflection, perhaps also a musical direction
bethôwkhâchôwth ‘al-‘âwon yiççaretâ ’îysh

wattemeç kâ‘âsh chamûdôw

’akh hebel kol-’âdâm çelâh

13. a) shim‘âh - hear, Qal imperative
b) thephillâthîy - my prayer, from pâlal
c) Yahweh

a) weshaw‘âthîy - and my cry for help, from shâwa‘
b) ha’azîynâh - give ear, from ’âzan, Hiph‘îyl imperative

a) ’el-dim‘âthîy - towards my tears, from dâma‘, weep
b) ’al-techerash - not stay silent/stay dumb/speechless/show deafness, from chârash, Qal imperfect 2ms
a) kîy - for/because
b) gêr - a sojourner/temporary dweller, from gâwar, sojourn
c)’ânôkhîy - I
d) ‘immâkh - with you

a) tôwshâb - a temporary dweller, more transient than gêr, from yâshab
b) kekhol-’abôthây - like all my fathers

shim‘âh thephillâthîy YHVH

weshaw‘âthîy ha’azîynâh

’el-dim‘âthîy ’al-techerash

kîy gêr ’ânôkhîy ‘immâkh

tôwshâb kekhol-’abôthây

14. a) hâsha‘ - from shâ‘âh, gaze steadily, Hiph‘îyl imperative, cause your gaze
b) mimmennîy - from me
c) we’abelîygâh - from bâlag, gleam/smile, Hiph‘îyl imperfect 1s, show smile/look cheerful

a) beterem - before
b) ’êlêkh - hâlakh, Qal imperfect 1s, I will go
c) we’êynennîy - and I am not

hâsha‘ mimmennîy we’abelîygâh

beterem ’êlêkh we’êynennîy