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The Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1-18 and Deuteronomy 5:5-21) - analysis of words used

 TranslationTransliteration
20:1.
5:5.
lê’môr - saying

a) lê’môr - saying

 
wayedabbêr ’elôhîym ’êth kol-haddebârîym hâ’êlleh lê’môr

lê’môr

 
20:2.
5:6.
a) ’ânôkhîy - I (emphasised)
b) Yahweh your Elohim

a) ’asher - which
b) hôwtsê’thîykhâ - from yâtsa’, go out - Hiphîyl perfect 1S, suffix you

a) mê’erets - from the land of (construct)
b) mitsrayyim - Egypt
c) mibêyth - from the house of (construct)
d) ‘abâdîym - services / workings

 
Ç ’ânôkhîy YHVH ’elôheykhâ
 

asher hôwtsê’thîykhâ
 

mê’erets mitsrayyim mibêyth ‘abâdîym
 
 
 

 
20:3.
5:7.
a) lô’-yihyeh - there must never be
b) lekhâ - to you
c) ’elôhîym - gods
d) ’achêrîym - other
e) ‘al-pânây - before my face / in front of me

 
lô’-yihyeh lekhâ ’elôhîym ’achêrîym ‘al-pânây
 
 
 
 

 
20:4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5:8.
a) lô’-tha‘aseh-lekhâ - never *** to you
b) pheçel - idol / image (from pâçal, hew or cut into shape)

a) wekol-temûnâh - and any likeness / form / representation/ semblance (related to mîyn, species / kind)
b) ’asher - which
c) bashshâmayim - in the heavens / skies
d) mimma‘al - from above

a) wa’asher - and which
b) bâ’ârets - in the earth
c) mitachath - from below

a) wa’asher - and which
b) bammayim - in the waters
c) mitachath - from below
d) lâ’arets - to the earth

a) lô’-tha‘aseh-lekhâ - never *** to you
b) pheçel - idol / image (from pâçal, hew or cut into shape)

a) kol-temûnâh - any likeness / form / representation/ semblance (related to mîyn, species / kind)
b) ’asher - which
c) bashshâmayim - in the heavens / skies
d) mimma‘al - from above

a) wa’asher - and which
b) bâ’ârets - in the earth
c) mitachath - from below

a) wa’asher - and which
b) bammayim - in the waters
c) mitachath - from below
d) lâ’arets - to the earth

 
lô’-tha‘aseh-lekhâ pheçel
 

wekol-temûnâh ’asher bashshâmayim mimma‘al
 
 
 

wa’asher bâ’ârets mitachath
 
 

wa’asher bammayim mitachath lâ’arets
 
 
 

lô’-tha‘aseh-lekhâ pheçel
 

kol-temûnâh ’asher bashshâmayim mimma‘al
 
 
 

wa’asher bâ’ârets mitachath
 
 

wa’asher bammayim mitachath lâ’arets
 
 
 

 
20:5
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5:9.
a) lô’-thishtachaweth - never bow down, from shâchâh Hithpa‘êl imperfect 2ms
b) lâhem - to them
c) welô’ - and never
d) thâ‘âbedêm - from ‘âbad, serve -

a) kîy ’ânôkhîy - for I (emphasised)
b) Yahweh your Elohim

a) ’êl - a god
b) qannâ’ - jealous (related to qânâh, get / acquire)
c) pôqed - from pâqad, attend to / visit / muster, Qal active participle
d) ‘awôn - wickedness
e) ’âbôth - fathers

a) ‘al-bânîym - upon sons
b) ‘al-shillêshîym - unto those of the third

a) we‘al-ribê‘îym - and unto those of the fourth
b) lesône’ây - to haters of me, from sânê’, hate - Qal active participle

a) lô’-thishtachaweth - never bow down, from shâchâh Hithpa‘êl imperfect 2ms
b) lâhem - to them
c) welô’ - and never
d) thâ‘âbedêm - from ‘âbad, serve -

a) kîy ’ânôkhîy - for I (emphasised)
b) Yahweh your Elohim

a) ’êl - a god
b) qannâ’ - jealous (related to qânâh, get / acquire)
c) pôqed - from pâqad, attend to / visit / muster, Qal active participle
d) ‘awôn - wickedness
e) ’âbôth - fathers

a) ‘al-bânîym - upon sons
b) ‘al-shillêshîym - unto those of the third

a) we‘al-ribê‘îym - and unto those of the fourth
b) lesône’ây - to haters of me, from sânê’, hate - Qal active participle

 
lô’-thishtachaweth lâhem welô’ thâ‘âbedêm
 
 
 

kîy ’ânôkhîy YHVH ’elôheykhâ
 

’êl qannâ’ pôqed ‘awôn ’âbôth
 
 
 
 

‘al-bânîym ‘al-shillêshîym
 

we‘al-ribê‘îym lesône’ây
 

lô’-thishtachaweth lâhem welô’ thâ‘âbedêm
 
 
 

kîy ’ânôkhîy YHVH ’elôheykhâ
 

’êl qannâ’ pôqed ‘awôn ’âbôwth
 
 
 
 

‘al-bânîym ‘al-shillêshîym
 

we‘al-ribê‘îym lesône’ây
 

 
20:6
 
 
 
 
 
 

5:10.
a) we‘ôseh - and a doer / maker, from ‘âsah, Qal active participle
b) cheçed - goodness / kindness (related to châçad, be good / kind, and châçîyd, adjective kind / pious as the active practice of kindness)
c) la’alâphîym - to thousands
d) le’ôhabay - to lovers of me, from ’âhab, Qal active participle

a) ûleshômrêy - and keepers of, from shâmar, Qal active participle construct
b) mitswôwthây - my commandments

a) we‘ôseh - and a doer / maker, from ‘âsah, Qal active participle
b) cheçed - goodness / kindness (related to châçad, be good / kind, and châçîyd, adjective kind / pious as the active practice of kindness)
c) la’alâphîym - to thousands
d) le’ôhabay - to lovers of me, from ’âhab, Qal active participle

a) ûleshômrêy - and keepers of, from shâmar, Qal active participle construct
b) mitswôwthâw - his commandments

 
we‘ôseh cheçed la’alâphîym le’ôhabay
 
 
 

ûleshômrêy mitswôwthây
 

we‘ôseh cheçed la’alâphîym le’ôhabay
 
 
 

ûleshômrêy mitswôwthâw

 

 
20:7
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5:11.
a) lô’ thissâ’ - never lift / carry / take, from nâsâ’, Qal imperfect 2ms
b) ’eth shêm-YHVH ’elôheykhâ - (object marker) the name of Yahweh your god

a) lashshawe’ - to emptiness / vanity / nothingness
b) kîy lô’ - for never
c) yenaqqeh - he will hold innocent / leave unpunished, from nâqâh, Pi‘êl 3ms
d) Yahweh

a) ’êth ’asher-yissâ’ - which/who he will lift / carry / take, from nâsâ’, Qal imperfect 3ms
b) ’eth-shemôw - his name
c) lashshâwe’ - to emptiness / vanity / nothingness

a) lô’ thissâ’ - never lift / carry / take, from nâsâ’, Qal imperfect 2ms
b) ’eth-shêm-YHVH-’elôheykhâ - (object marker) the name of Yahweh your god

a) lashshawe’ - to emptiness / vanity / nothingness
b) kîy lô’ - for never
c) yenaqqeh - he will hold innocent / leave unpunished, from nâqâh, Pi‘êl 3ms
d) Yahweh

a) ’êth ’asher-yissâ’ - which/who he will lift / carry / take, from nâsâ’, Qal imperfect 3ms
b) ’eth-shemôw - his name
c) lashshâwe’ - to emptiness / vanity / nothingness

Ç lô’ thissâ’ ’eth shêm-YHVH ’elôheykhâ
 

lashshawe’ kîy lô’ yenaqqeh YHVH
 
 
 

’êth ’asher-yissâ’ ’eth-shemôw lashshâwe
 
 

Ç lô’ thissâ’ ’eth-shêm-YHVH-’elôheykhâ
 

lashshawe’ kîy lô’ yenaqqeh YHVH
 
 
 

’êth ’asher-yissâ’ ’eth-shemôw lashshâwe
 
 

 
20:8

5:12.



P zâkhôwr ’eth-yôwm hashshabbath leqadeshôw

Ç shamôwr ’eth-yôwm hashshabbath leqadeshôw
ka’asher tsiwwekhâ YHVH ’elôheykhâ
 
20:9/5:13. a) shêsheth yamîym - six days
b) ta‘abîd - you will work / serve, from ‘âbad, Qal imperfect 2ms
c) we‘âsîyth - and be doing, from ‘âsâh, do / make, Qal passive participle
d) kol-mela’khetekhâ - all your own occupation / work, from lâ’kh, send / wait upon / minister

 
shêsheth yamîym ta‘abîd we‘âsîyth kol-mela’khetekhâ
 
 
 

 
20:10
 
 
 
 
 

5:14.
 

 
weyôwm hashshebîy‘îy shabâth laYHVH ’elôheykhâ
lô’-tha‘aseth kol-melâ’khâh ’attâh
ûbinekhâ-ûbitekhâ
‘abdekhâ wa’amâtekhâ
ûbehemetekhâ
wegêrekhâ ’asher bish‘âreykhâ

weyôwm hashshebîy‘îy shabâth laYHVH ’elôheykhâ
lô’-tha‘aseth kol-melâ’khâh ’attâh
ûbinekhâ-ûbitekhâ
we‘abdekhâ wa’amâtekhâ
weshôrekhâ-wachamôrekhâ
wekhol-behemetekhâ
wegêrekhâ ’asher bish‘âreykhâ
lema‘an yânuach ‘abdekhâ wa’amâthekhâ kâmôwkhâ
 
20:11
 
 
 
 

5:15.
 

 
kîy shêsheh-yâmîym ‘âsâh YHVH
’eth-hashshâmayim we’eth-hâ’ârets
’eth-hayyâm we’eth-kol-’asher-bâm
wayyânach bayyôm hashshebîy‘îy
‘al-kên bêrakh YHVH ’eth-yôwm hashshabâth wayeqadeshêhû

wezâkharetâ kîy-‘ebed hâyîythâ be’erets mitsrayim
wayyôtsi’akhâ YHVH ’elôheykhâ mishshâm
beyâd chazâqâh ûbizerôa‘ netûyâh
‘al-kên tsiwwekhâ YHVH ’elôheykhâ
la‘asôwth ’eth-yôwm hashshabâth
 
20:12
 
 
 

5:16.



Ç kabêd ’eth-’âbîykhâ we’eth-’âmmekhâ
lema‘an ya’arikhûn yâmeykhâ
‘al ha’adâmâh ’asher-YHVH ’elôheykhâ nôthêy lâkh

Ç kabêd ’eth-’âbîykhâ we’eth-’âmmekhâ
ka’asher tsiwwekhâ YHVH ’elôheykhâ
lema‘an ya’arikhun yâmeykhâ
ûlema‘an yîytab lâkh
‘al ha’adâmâh ’asher-YHVH ’elôheykhâ nôthên lâkh
 
20:13/5:17. a) lô’ tiretsachâ - never murder, from râtsach, murder / slay with intent, Qal imperfect 2ms

 
Ç lô’ tiretsachâ

 
20:14
5:18.
a) lô’ tine’âph - never commit adultery, from nâ’aph, Qal imperfect 2ms

a) welô’ tine’âph - and never commit adultery, from nâ’aph, Qal imperfect 2ms

 
Ç lô’ tine’âph

Ç welô’ tine’âph

 
20:15
5:19.
a) lô’tigenôb - never steal, from gânab, Qal imperfect 2ms

a) welô’tigenôb - and never steal, from gânab, Qal imperfect 2ms

 
Ç lô’ tigenôb

Ç welô’ tigenôb

 
20:16
 
 
 

5:20.
a) lô’-tha‘aneh - never testify, from ‘ânâh, answer / respond as witness / testify, Qal imperfect 2ms
b) berê‘akhâ - by your associate (see Notes)
c) ‘êd shâqer - a witness of deception / disappointment (esp injurious) / falsehood

a) welô’ tha‘aneh - and never testify, from ‘ânâh, answer / respond as witness / testify, Qal imperfect 2ms
b) berê‘akhâ - by your associate (see Notes)
c) ‘êd shâqer - a witness of emptiness / vanity / nothingness

 
Ç lô’-tha‘aneh berê‘akhâ ‘êd shâqer
 
 
 

Ç welô’ tha‘aneh berê‘akhâ ‘êd shâwe
 
 
 

 
20:17
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5:21.
a) lô’ thachemôd - never crave pleasure, from châmad, desire / take pleasure in (usually in a bad or unrestrained sense), Qal imperfect 2ms
b) bêyth - the house of (construct)
c) re‘ekhâ - your associate (see Notes)

a) lô’ thachemôd - never crave pleasure, from châmad, desire / take pleasure in (usually in a bad or unrestrained sense), Qal imperfect 2ms
b) ’êsheth - a wife of (construct)
c) re‘ekhâ - your associate (see Notes)

a) we‘abedôw - and his man-servant
b) wa’amathôw - and his woman-servant

a) weshôwrôw - and his cattle
b) wachamôrôw - and his donkey

a) wekhol ’asher - and everything which (is)
b) lerê‘ekhâ - to your associate (see Notes)

a) lô’ thachemôd - never crave pleasure, from châmad, desire / take pleasure in (usually in a bad or unrestrained sense), Qal imperfect 2ms
b) ’êsheth - a wife of (construct)
c) re‘ekhâ - your associate (see Notes)

a) welô’ thithe’aweh - and never desire / mark out, from ’âwâh, incline / long for / desire / lust after, also mark out / measure, Hithpa‘êl imperfect 2ms
b) bêyth - the house of (construct)
c) re‘ekhâ - your associate (see Notes)

a) sâdêhû - his field
b) we‘abedôw - and his cattle
c) wa’amathôw - and his donkey

Ç lô’ thachemôd bêyth re‘ekhâ
 
 
 

Ç lô’ thachemôd ’êsheth re‘ekhâ
 
 
 

we‘abedôw wa’amathôw
 

weshôwrôw wachamôrôw
 

wekhol ’asher lerê‘ekhâ
 

Ç welô’ thachemôd ’êsheth re‘ekhâ
 
 
 

Ç welô’ thithe’aweh bêyth re‘ekhâ
 
 
 

sâdêhû we‘abedôw wa’amathôw
 
 

shôwrôw wachamôrôw
wekhol ’asher lerê‘ekhâ
 

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